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Culture and Social Change
The Death of the American Feminist Movement by Lisa Shaffner, PhD, NCC, LPCMH


When I was a small child in the 70's, my mother became a feminist. She would gather with her like-minded women friends for long meetings around our kitchen table. These women were fascinating to me; braless, unshaven legs, no makeup, long unprocessed or teased hair, un-manicured nails, loose fitting long dresses and skirts and most of all flat sensible shoes. These women were my foremothers planning to change the lives of all women through a fight for equality and fairness and a refusal to conform to the male dominated cultural norms of barefoot and pregnant, uneducated and homebound, economically enslaved to a husband, a man's property, a servant to unrewarding domestic work, a sex object, and a breed mare for offspring. Halleluiah, deliverance was upon us.

Higher Education in the Context of the Global Silk Road Approach by Jan R. Hakemulder, PhD

Intercultural Open University Foundation

February 23, 2011

Historical developments of the university system are highlighted and the contemporary paradigm shift.

The Tao of higher education can be summarized as Self Responsible Self Determination in service of the society, the nation and the world community as a whole.”



The city of Bologna hosts what Europeans think is the most ancient university in the world, founded in 1088. Just as the art of printing is not a European, but a Chinese invention, the eldest university also is not European but Indian.
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